Biojet fuel powered flights
jatropha y camelina
Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas
San José, Costa Rica
Sao Paolo, Brasil
July 21st, 2011
August 1st, 2011
June 18th, 2012
Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF), technically known as synthetic paraffinic querosenes, is a synthetic fuel made up of a mixture of linear and branched hydrocarbons; its energy density and its physical properties conform to the characteristics of the conventional jet fuel. The similarity in properties is essential, given the extreme conditions of temperature and pressure to which the synthetic fuel is subjected during flight.
Biojet fuel can be produced from biomass, understood as organic matter of vegetable or animal origin - including organic waste - susceptible of being harnessed energetically.
Biomass can be first, second or third generation. Basically, the first generation is represented by all crops susceptible to be used in human food. In contrast, second generation biomass includes agricultural and forestry residues composed primarily of cellulose, as well as non-edible seed oils, such as jatropha, castor and camelina. On the other hand, the third generation biomass is represented by algae and microalgae.
The term in Spanish “bioturbosina” is only used in Mexico in accordance with the term used for aviation fuel (turbosina), globally known as Jet-A1. Other concepts that refer to this type of biofuel are alternative aviation fuel, sustainable aviation fuels for aviation, jet biofuel, biojet and green jet fuel.
Sustainable Aviation Fuel
The processes that have received their certification through the ASTM D-7566 standard are:
Hydroprocessing of esters and fatty acids (HEFA).
Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbons (DSCH).
In October 2009, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) held a High-Level Meeting on Aviation and Climate Change, which discussed the areas where is possible reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) coming from international aviation.
At that meeting, an Action Program was adopted; the first harmonized global agreement of a sector to address its CO2 emissions. Recommended targets included a 1.5% annual CO2 improvement for a period up to 2020, carbon neutral growth from 2020 and a long-term target of 50% reduction by 2050 in relation to 2005 levels.
Mexico was the first emerging economy to announce its commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Mexico supports the ICAO GHG reduction initiative, which means teamwork between industry and government.
ICAO´s basket of measures to achieve the goals mentioned are:
Market based measures.
The measure with the greatest impact in the medium term is the development and use of alternative fuels for aviation.
In Mexico, actions have been taken since 2009 to promote the development of alternative aviation fuels, with the participation of the federal government and the private sector, as well as research centers and other institutions.
The first biojet fuel powered demonstration flight in Mexico at commercial level was carried out by Interjet in 2011, on the Mexico-Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas route.
In August 2011, Aeroméxico made the first commercial transoceanic flight powered by biojet fuel in the world, departing from Mexico City to Madrid, Spain. Aeromexico also had a "green flights" program that flew from Mexico City to San Jose, Costa Rica. Likewise, it also carried out one of the stretches of the Rio+20 initiative (from Mexico to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which transported the Secretary General of ICAO.
Over 5,000 biojet fuel-powered flights have been made around the world.
The magnitude of GHG emissions from the air transport, which is the second most important after the road transport, must be highlighted, although it only contributes 0.018% of the domestic cargo movement and 0.7% of the domestic passenger movement. Mexico's per capita emissions are now at a level quite close to the world average.
The population of Mexico is expected to increase from 98.44 million in the year 2000 to 121.86 million in the year 2050. If our country assumed as an indicative target for the reference year a match with the above-mentioned global average per capita emissions Mexican GHG emissions should not exceed 339.4 MtCO2e (Mexican Institute of Transportation, 2013).
Form of transport
GHG emissions during 2006 in Mexico, by type of transportation were:
Growth and emissions
It is estimated that the world population will increase from 6,124 million in 2000 to 9,191 million in 2050, when almost all countries will have completed their demographic transition. If the demographic prediction and global emission limitation hypothesis met by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the middle of the century is met, the world average per capita emissions by 2050 would be 2,785 tCO2e / hab / year, about 60% less than at the beginning of the century.
In the global context, Mexico contributes around 1.6% to GHG emissions. In 2006 these were 715 MtCO2e. In the range of source countries, it is located in the 13th position. Mexico's per capita emissions increased in 2006 amounted to 6.2 tCO2, and excluding the category of land use and changes in land use and forestry (LULUCF) were 5.9 tCO2 (Mexican Institute of Transportation, 2013).
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized UN agency established by States in 1944 to administer and enforce the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).