One of the crucial objectives for the Biojet Cluster is the development of long-term and commercially scalable sustainable processes for the production of alternative fuel, for which there are already five processes certified for use in commercial aviation.

  • Fischer-Tropsch (FT): also known as indirect liquefaction of coal, involves the prior gasification of coal by partial oxidation. The possibility of using mixtures of coal and residual biomass or organic residues as a carbon source allows the development of increasingly neutral processes with respect to atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  • Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA): process in which oils of vegetable and / or animal origin are hydrogenated.

  • Alcohol To Jet (ATJ): A process in which alcohols, produced through fermentation or hydrolysis, are transformed into bio jet fuel.

  • Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbons (DSCH): A process in which sugars are used, by undergo fermentation, conversion, hydrotreating and separation reactions.

Other processes that are in the process of certification are:

  • Pyrolysis To Jet (PTJ): consists of a thermal decomposition of the coal in an oxygen-free atmosphere, a hydrocracking, for the hydrocarbon chain division.

  • Aqueous reforming: process for the production of hydrogen which represents an interesting alternative due to the lower reaction temperatures and the hydrogen obtained has lower CO content in the outflow.

Currently in the Biojet Cluster we´re focused in research activities on the HEFA and ATJ processes.

Conversion processes

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